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HINA SAYYAD
3 min readMay 15, 2021

Regression

The term regression is used when you try to find the relationship between variables.

In Machine Learning, and in statistical modeling, that relationship is used to predict the outcome of future events.

Table of Contents

  1. What is Linear Regression
  2. Example Explained
  3. Bad fit of Linear Regression
  4. Types of Linear Regression

Linear Regression

Linear regression uses the relationship between the data-points to draw a straight line through all them.

This line can be used to predict future values.

Example

Start by drawing a scatter plot:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x = [5,7,8,7,2,17,2,9,4,11,12,9,6]
y = [99,86,87,88,111,86,103,87,94,78,77,85,86]

plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.show()

Result:

Example

Import scipy and draw the line of Linear Regression:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy import stats

x = [5,7,8,7,2,17,2,9,4,11,12,9,6]
y = [99,86,87,88,111,86,103,87,94,78,77,85,86]

slope, intercept, r, p, std_err = stats.linregress(x, y)

def myfunc(x):
return slope * x + intercept

mymodel = list(map(myfunc, x))

plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.plot(x, mymodel)
plt.show()

Result:

Example Explained

Import the modules you need.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy import stats

Create the arrays that represent the values of the x and y axis:

x = [5,7,8,7,2,17,2,9,4,11,12,9,6]
y = [99,86,87,88,111,86,103,87,94,78,77,85,86]

Execute a method that returns some important key values of Linear Regression:

slope, intercept, r, p, std_err = stats.linregress(x, y)

Create a function that uses the slope and intercept values to return a new value. This new value represents where on the y-axis the corresponding x value will be placed:

def myfunc(x):
return slope * x + intercept

Run each value of the x array through the function. This will result in a new array with new values for the y-axis:

mymodel = list(map(myfunc, x))

Draw the original scatter plot:

plt.scatter(x, y)

Draw the line of linear regression:

plt.plot(x, mymodel)

Display the diagram:

plt.show()

Bad Fit?

Let us create an example where linear regression would not be the best method to predict future values.

Example

These values for the x- and y-axis should result in a very bad fit for linear regression:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy import stats

x = [89,43,36,36,95,10,66,34,38,20,26,29,48,64,6,5,36,66,72,40]
y = [21,46,3,35,67,95,53,72,58,10,26,34,90,33,38,20,56,2,47,15]

slope, intercept, r, p, std_err = stats.linregress(x, y)

def myfunc(x):
return slope * x + intercept

mymodel = list(map(myfunc, x))

plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.plot(x, mymodel)
plt.show()

Result:

There are two main types:

Simple regression

Simple linear regression uses traditional slope-intercept form, where mm and bb are the variables our algorithm will try to β€œlearn” to produce the most accurate predictions. xx represents our input data and yy represents our prediction.

y=mx+by=mx+b

Multivariable regression

A more complex, multi-variable linear equation might look like this, where ww represents the coefficients, or weights, our model will try to learn.

f(x,y,z)=w1x+w2y+w3zf(x,y,z)=w1x+w2y+w3z

The variables x,y,zx,y,z represent the attributes, or distinct pieces of information, we have about each observation. For sales predictions, these attributes might include a company’s advertising spend on radio, TV, and newspapers.

Sales=w1Radio+w2TV+w3News

References :

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HINA SAYYAD

A vibrant mind with great personality.Always opine enigmatic thought about everything. Like to write about technology and lifestyle.